Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the name for a group of lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties.
COPD is a common condition that mainly affects middle-aged or older adults who smoke, although you can be a non-smoker and develop COPD.
COPD happens when the lungs become inflamed, damaged and narrowed. The main cause is smoking, although the condition can sometimes affect people who have never smoked.
The likelihood of developing COPD increases the more you smoke and the longer you’ve smoked.
Some cases of COPD are caused by long-term exposure to harmful fumes or dust. Others are the result of a rare genetic problem which means the lungs are more vulnerable to damage.
The breathing problems tend to get gradually worse over time and can limit your normal activities, although education and treatment can help keep the condition under control.
The main symptoms of COPD are:
Without treatment, the symptoms usually get progressively worse. There may also be periods when they get suddenly worse, known as a flare-up or exacerbation.
COPD can be diagnosed using a detailed history imaging of your lungs and lung function testing.
The damage to the lungs caused by COPD is permanent, but treatment can help slow down the progression of the condition.
The physiotherapy treatment techniques can include;